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CBSE XI, XII Biology Syllabus 2021-22 Download PDF free

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https://techcbse.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/Biology_SrSec_2021-22.pdf OR (Both File are same with alternate server) https://techcbse.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/Biology_SrSec_2021-22.pdf                                       CLASS XII (2021-22) (THEORY) Time: 03 Hours Max. Marks: 70 Unit      Title                          VI        Reproduction                  VII       Genetics and Evolution          VIII      Biology and Human Welfare  IX        Biotechnology and its Applications X         Ecology and Environment    Total              Unit-VI Reproduction Chapter-1: Reproduction in Organisms Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; modes of reproduction - asexual and sexual reproduction; asexual reproduction - binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants; events in sexual reproduction. Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination - types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events - development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation. Chapter-3: Human Reproduction Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis - spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea). Chapter-4: Reproductive Health Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control - need and methods; medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT, AI (brief overview). Unit-VII Genetics and Evolution Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation Heredity and variation, Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; linkage and crossing over; Sex determination - in human being, birds, grasshopper and honey bee; Mutation, Pedigree analysis, sex linked inheritance - haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans –sickle cell anaemia, Phenylketonuria, thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes. Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; DNA replication; Central Dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation - lac operon; Human genome project; DNA fingerprinting. Chapter-7: Evolution Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences); adaptive radiation; Biological evolution: Lamarck’s theory of use and disuse of organs, Darwin's theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution - variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy - Weinberg's principle; brief account of evolution; human evolution. Unit-VIII Biology and Human Welfare Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence - drug and alcohol abuse. Chapter-9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Animal husbandry, Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein. Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare Microbes in food processing, industrial production, Antibiotics; production and judicious use, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Unit-IX Biotechnology and its Applications Chapter-11: Biotechnology - Principles and Processes Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology). Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Application Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: genetically modified organisms - Bt crops; RNA interference, Human insulin, gene therapy; molecular diagnosis; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents. Unit-X Ecology and Environment Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, abiotic factors, ecological adaptations; population interactions - mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism, commensalism; population attributes - growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution. Chapter-14: Ecosystem Ecosystem: structure and function; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession; ecological services - carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief). Chapter-15: Biodiversity and Conservation Biodiversity - Concept, levels, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites. Chapter-16: Environmental Issues Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and climate change impact and mitigation; ozone layer depletion; deforestation; case study exemplifying success story addressing environmental issue(s).

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