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POLITICAL SCIENCE (Code No. 028)
(2021-22)

                                                                                                                            Class XII
Paper I: Contemporary World Politics

Unit-2: The End of Bipolarity
Sub-Unit: ‘Arab Spring’
The 21st century witnessed emergence of new developments for democracies and
democratization in West Asian countries,one such event is characterized as Arab Spring that
began in 2010. Located in Tunisia, the Arab Spring took its roots where the struggle against
corruption, unemployment and poverty was started by the public which turned into a political
movement because the people considered the existing problems as outcome of autocratic
dictatorship. The demand for democracy that started in Tunisia spread throughout the Muslim dominated Arab

countries in West Asia. Hosni Mubarak, who had been in power in Egypt since
1979, also collapsed as a result of the massive democratic protests. In addition, the influence of
Arab Spring could also be seen in Yemen, Bahrain, Libya and Syria where similar protests by
the people led to democratic awakening throughout the region.

Unit-3: New Centres of Power
Sub-Unit: ‘BRICS’
The term BRICS refers to Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa respectively. BRIC was
founded in 2006 in Russia. BRIC turned into BRICS after the inclusion of South Africa in its first
meeting in the year 2009. The key objectives of BRICS are primarily to cooperate and distribute
mutual economic benefits among its members besides non-interference in the internal policies
of each nation and mutual equality. The 11th conference of the BRICS concluded in Brazil in
2019, chaired by Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro.
Sub-Unit: ‘Russia’
Russia has been the largest part of the former Soviet Union even before its disintegration. After
the dissolution of the Soviet Union in late 1980s and early 1990s, Russia emerged as the strong
successor of USSR [Union of Soviet Socialist Republics]. Russia’s GDP is currently 11th in the
world. Russia has reserves of minerals, natural resources and gases that make it a powerful
country in the global world. In addition, Russia is a nuclear state with a huge stock of
sophisticated weapons. Russia is also a permanent member of the UN Security Council, called
P-5.
Sub-Unit: ‘India’
The 21st century India is being seen as an important emerging global power. The world is
experiencing the power and rise of India in a multidimensional way. The economic, cultural,
strategic position of the country with a population of more than 135 crores is very strong. From
an economic perspective, targeting the goal of a $5 trillion economy, a competitive huge market,
an ancient inclusive culture with 200 million people of Indian Diaspora spreading across the
globe impart distinct meaning and salience to India as a new centre of power in the 21st century.
From a strategic perspective, the military of India is self-sufficient with indigenous nuclear
technology making it another nuclear power. ‘Make in India’ scheme in technology and science
is another milestone of Indian economy. All these changes are making India an important centre
of power in the present world.
Sub-Unit: ‘Israel’
Shown on the world map with a pointer, Israel has emerged as one of the most powerful
nations in the 21st century world in terms of science and technology, defence, intelligence
besides economy. Situated in the middle of the burning politics of West Asian countries, Israel
has reached to the new heights of global political standing by virtue of its indomitable defence
prowess, technological innovations, industrialization and agricultural development. Sustaining
against adversity is the principle with which a small Jewish-Zionist nation, i.e., Israel is placed in
the contemporary global politics in general and the Arab-dominated West Asian politics in
particular.

Unit-5: United Nations and Its Organizations
Sub-Unit: ‘UNESCO’
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was
established on 4 November 1946. With its headquarter in Paris, France, UNESCO is a special
body of the United Nations whose main objective is to promote education, natural science,
society and anthropology, culture and communication. During past several years, the special
work done by UNESCO has been to promote literacy, technical and educational training and
independent media etc. all across its member nations.
Sub-Unit: ‘UNICEF’
The United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) was established in
1946 by the United Nations General Assembly as a body whose main task was to collect
emergency funds for children and to help in their development work all across the world. Apart
from this, UNICEF helps and encourages the work that promote children’s health and better life
in all parts of the world. With its’ headquarter in New York, United States, UNICEF has been
working successfully in almost all 193 countries of the world.
Sub-Unit: ‘ILO’
The International Labour Organization (ILO), founded in October 1919 with its headquarter in
Geneva, Switzerland, is a body of the United Nations which aims to promote efficient conditions
of social justice and work for workers through international labour standards at the global level.
In addition, there is an incentive for women and male workers toengage in productive work and
to create safety, parity and self-respectful conditions for them at the workplace.

Unit-6: Security in Contemporary World
Sub-Unit: ‘Terrorism’
Terrorism refers to systematic use of brutal violence that creates an atmosphere of fear in
society. It is used for many purposes, very prominently the politico-religious purposes.
There could be three broad meanings of terrorism:
● A systematic use of terror, often violent, especially as a means of coercion.
● Violent acts which are intended to create fear (terror); are perpetrated for a religious,
political or, ideological goal; and deliberately target or disregard the safety of noncombatants (civilians).
● Acts of unlawful violence and war.
There is not a single nation in the world that does not suffer from terrorism. Although some
countries have tried to divide terrorism into good and bad terrorism, India has always denied this
distinction. India’s current Prime Minister Narendra Modi has also clarified that terrorism cannot
be divided into good or bad; it is a global problem and should be combated collectively.

Class XII
Paper II: Politics in India Since Independence
Unit-9: Challenges of Nation Building
Sub-Unit: ‘Patel and National Integration’
The first deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister of India, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, emerged
as a major leader of the freedom movement after the Kheda Satyagraha (1918) and the Bardoli
Satyagraha (1928).
At the time of independence, the problem of integration of princely states was a big challenge
for the national unity and integrity of India. Under such difficult times, Sardar Patel undertook the
daunting tasks of uniting all 565 princely states ofIndia. Known as an ‘Iron Man’ of India, Patel’s
approach to the question of the merger of princely states into independent India was very clear.
He was not in favour of any compromise with the territorial integrity of India. By his political
experience, diplomatic prowess and foresightedness, out of India’s 565 princely states many
had already given their consent to merge with India even before achieving the independence
Sardar Patel faced key challenges of integration from three states, viz., Hyderabad, Junagarh
and Kashmir. It was under hisleadership that Indian forces compelled Hyderabad and Junagarh
to merge with India. Keeping well- versed with Pakistan’s intentions from Jinnah’s divisive ‘Two
Nation Theory’, Sardar Patel’s opinion on Kashmir was different from other leaders. Like
Hyderabad, he also wanted Kashmir’s integration with India through military operations. But due
to various reasons, Sardar could not succeed in integrating Kashmir fully with India. However,
Sardar will always remain as an astounding leader who combined in himself the features of a
true ‘Nationalist’, ‘Catalyst’ and ‘Realist’ – popularly characterised as NCR in Indian political
history.
Unit-2: Planned Development
Sub-Unit: ‘NITI Aayog’
After independence, a Planning Commission based on socialist model was formed for the
planned development of India. But in the era of globalization, especially in the 21st century, it
was becoming ineffective and irrelevant, particularly in terms of coping with the pressing
challenges of development. Hence, during his Independence Day speech on 15 August 2014,
Prime Minister Narendra Modi talked about the abolition of the Planning Commission. NITI
Aayog was constitutedin place of Planning Commission on 1 January 2015 with the objective of
providing the necessary and technical advice to the Union Government regarding policy making
at the Central and State levels.
The Prime Minister of India is the ex-officio Chairman of NITI Aayog and he appoints the Vice
Chairperson of NITI Aayog. The first Vice Chairperson of NITI Aayog was Arvind Panagariya. Dr
Rajiv Kumar is the current Vice Chairperson of NITI Aayog.
To harmonize the interests of national security and economic policy and to prepare strategic
and long-term framework of policy and program, NITI Aayog acts as a think tank of the Union
Government. By adopting a ‘Bottom-Up Approach’, the NITI Aayog acts in the spirit of
cooperative federalism as it ensures equal participation of all states in the country.
Unit-3: India’s Foreign Policy
Sub-Unit: ‘India-Israel Relations’
Nearly 45 years after independence, due to various reasons, India’s foreign policy with Israel
remained largely unexplored notwithstanding the two nations gaining independence from the
British colonial rule in 1947 and 1948 respectively.
Though historical and cultural ties between India and Israel have gone back from times
immemorial, diplomatic relations formally developed between the two after the opening of Israeli
embassy in India in 1992.
After the establishment of formal diplomatic relations, the relations between the two countries
started gaining firmness in 1996 and 1998 onwards. Relations between the two democratic
nations further intensified with the visits of the Two Heads of Government: Prime Minister
Narendra Modi to Israel in 2017 and Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to India in 2018. The
two nations have started cooperation in various fields like cultural exchange, security and
defence, counterterrorism, space research, water and energy and agricultural development.
Sub-Unit: ‘India’s Nuclear Program’ (Updates)
India’s nuclear policy has always been peace-oriented, whose clear impression is reflected in
the policy of No First Use. But in view of contemporary regional security challenges, the present
government led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi has made it clear that the policy of no first use
can be reviewed and changed in consonance with India’s regional and national security. In
addition, India is committed to ensuring its membership in the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)
and opposing partisan and unjust nuclear treaties like CTBT and NPT.
Unit-5: Democratic Resurgence
Sub-Unit: ‘Jaya Prakash Narayan and Total Revolution’ [Updates]
Jaya Prakash Narayan is known for three key contributions: Fight against Corruption, Principle
of Communitarian Socialism and Championing of ‘Total Revolution’.
Jaya Prakash Narayan was the first leader in post-independence India who undertook a tirade
against corruption through the participation of youth, particularly in Gujarat and Bihar. He
advocated the office of Lokpal against corruption. His principle of Communitarian Socialism
views India as a society of communities encompassing three key layers, viz., community, region
and rashtra – all combining together as an example of true federation.
Based on the above principles, Jaya Prakash Narayan advocated transformation of individual,
society and state through his call for ‘Total Revolution’. His call for total revolution sought to
encompass moral, cultural, economic, political, educational and ecological transformations. His
political transformation included the right to recall, the importance of village/mohalla samities in
democratic politics, and his call for Upper Ke Log to join political struggle for a clean politics in
the country.
The essence for transformation according to Jaya Prakash Narayan revolves around ‘Man’
who could be the real catalyst of change in India.
Sub-Unit: ‘Ram Manohar Lohia and Socialism’
Ram Manohar Lohia has been one of the main proponents of socialism in India. He
championed the idea of ‘Democratic Socialism’ while associating his socialism with
democracy. Lohia considered both capitalism and communism equally irrelevant for Indian
society. His principle of Democratic Socialism has two objectives – the economic objective
in form of food and housing and the non-economic objective in form of democracy and
freedom.
Lohia advocated Chouburja Rajneeti in which he opines four pillars of politics as well as
socialism: Centre, Region, District and Village – all are linked with each other. Giving
consideration to affirmative action, Lohia argued that the policy of affirmative action should not
only be for the downtrodden but also for the women and the non-religious minorities.
Based on the premise of Democratic Socialism and Chouburja Rajneeti, Lohia supported a
‘Party of Socialism’ as an attempt of merging all political parties. The Party of Socialism
according to Lohia should have three symbols, viz., Spade [prepared to make efforts], Vote
[power of voting], and Prison [Willingness to make sacrifices].
Sub-Unit: ‘Deendayal Upadhyaya and Integral Humanism’
Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya was a philosopher, sociologist, economist and politician. The
philosophy presented by him is called ‘Integral Humanism’ which was intended to present an
‘indigenous socio-economic model’ in which human being remains at the centre of development.
The aim of Integral Humanism is to ensure dignified life for every human being while balancing
the needs of the individual and society. It supports sustainable consumption of natural
resources so that those resources can be replenished. Integral Humanism enhances not only
political but also economic and social democracy and freedom. As it seeks to promote diversity,
it is best suited for a country as diverse as India.
The philosophy of Integral Humanism is based on the following three principles:
● Primacy of whole, not part
● Supremacy of Dharma
● Autonomy of Society
Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya opposed both Western ‘capitalist individualism’ and ‘Marxist
socialism’. According to Deendayal Upadhyaya, capitalist and socialist ideologies only consider
the needs of the human body and mind, so they are based on materialistic purpose whereas
spiritual development is equally considered important for the complete development of human
being which is missing in both capitalism and socialism. Basing his philosophy on the internal
conscience, pure human soul to be called Chhitti, Deendayal Upadhyaya envisaged a classless,
casteless and conflict-free social system.
Deen Dayal Upadhyaya advocated Indianization of Democracy, particularly with a focus on
Economic Democracy. For him, decentralization & Swadeshi are the foundation of Economic
Democracy. His philosophy broadly revolved around the principle of Arthayaam which states
that both the absence and prominence of artha lead to the destruction and denigration of
Dharma which is so central to Integral Humanism.
Sub-Unit: ‘Democratic Upsurges’
Increasing participation of the people in the democratic politics of the country is broadly
characterised as democratic upsurge. Based on this principle, social scientists have
characterized three democratic upsurges in post- independence history of India.
The ‘First Democratic Upsurge’ could be attributed from the 1950s till 1970s which was based
on the participation of Indian adult voters to the democratic politics both at the centre and in
states. Falsifying the western myth that the success of democracy requires modernization,
urbanization, education and access to media, the successful holding of elections to both Lok
Sabha and legislative assemblies all across states on the principle of parliamentary democracy
were the testimony of India’s first democratic upsurge.
During the 1980’s, the increasing political participation of the lower classes of the society such
as SCs, STs and OBCs has been interpreted as ‘Second Democratic Upsurge’ by Yogendra
Yadav. This participation has made Indian politics more accommodative and accessible for
these classes. Although this upsurge has not made any major change in the standard of living of
these classes, especially Dalits, the participation of these classes into the organizational and
political platforms gave them the opportunity to strengthen their self-respect and ensure
empowerment in the democratic politics of the country.
The era of Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization from the early 1990s is attributed to the
emergence of a competitive market society encompassing all important sectors of economy,
society and polity thus paving way for the ‘Third Democratic Upsurge’. The Third Democratic
Upsurge represents a competitive electoral market which is based not on the principle of
survival of the fittest but rather the survival of the ablest. It underlines three shifts in India’s
electoral market: from State to Market, from Government to Governance, from State as
Controller to State as Facilitator. Moreover, the Third Democratic Upsurge seeks to promote the
participation of the youth who constitute a significant chunk of Indian society and have emerged
as the real game changers in view of their increasing electoral preference for both development
and governance in India’s contemporary democratic politics.
Unit-7: Regional Aspirations
Sub-Unit: ‘The Kashmir Issue’
Since its integration with the Union of India, Kashmir has remained one of the burning issues in
post-independence India. The problem became more complicated when it was accorded a
special status in the Constitution through Article 370 and Article 35A – the former giving it
special powers like having its separate Constitution/Constituent Assembly/Flag, new
nomenclature for Chief Minister as Prime Minister and Governor as Sadr-e-Riyasat, and the
non-enforcement of most of the Union laws in the state while the later imparting it special
citizenship rights prohibiting the non-Kashmiris from buyingproperty in the state.
It was against the special status of the state of Jammu and Kashmir that there was a call for
abrogation of Articles 370 and 35A. Others equated Article 370 and 35A as ‘constitutionally
recognized separatism’.
It was against this backdrop that current NDA Government presented the Jammu and
Kashmir Reorganization Bill in Rajya Sabha on 5 August 2019 for the abolition of Section 370
and 35-A from Kashmir, which was passed by a majority.The bill was passed by the Lok Sabha
on 6 August 2019. After the President’s assent on 9 August 2019, Sections 370 and 35A were
repealed and Jammu and Kashmir got divided into two Union Territories of Ladakh and Jammu
and Kashmir.
Unit-8: Indian Politics: Trends and Developments
Sub-Unit: ‘NDA III & IV’
The Bharatiya Janata Party led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi got an absolute majority in the
Lok Sabha elections held in May 2014 and after nearly 30 years in Indian politics, a strong
government with an absolute majority was established at the Centre. Though called NDA III, the
BJP-led coalition of 2014 was largely different its predecessor coalition governments. Where the
previous coalitions were led by one of the national parties, the NDA III coalition was not only
steered by a national party, i.e., BJP it was also dominated by BJP with an absolute majority of
its own in Lok Sabha. It was also called a ‘surplus majority coalition’. In that sense a major
transformation could be seen in the nature of coalition politics which could be seen from one
party led coalition to one party dominated coalition.
The 2019 Lok Sabha elections, the 17th since independence, once again brought back BJP led
NDA [NDA IV] to the centre of power by winning more than 350 seats out of 543. The BJP on its
own won 303 seats in Lok Sabha, the biggest number any single party has won in the lower
house since 1984 when Congress swept the elections in the aftermath of Mrs Indira Gandhi’s
assassination. Based on the tumultuous success of the BJP in 2019, Social Scientists have
started equating the contemporary party system with the ‘BJP System’ where an era of one
party dominance, like the ‘Congress System’ has once again started appearing on the
democratic politics of India.
Sub-Unit: ‘Issues of Development and Governance’
A major change in Indian politics after 2014 is the shift from caste and religion based politics to
development and governance oriented politics. The NDA III Government started several socioeconomic

welfare schemes to make development and governance accessible to the masses
such as -Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana, Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, Jan-Dhan Yojana,
Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana, Kisan Fasal Bima Yojna, Beti Padhao, Desh
Badhao, Ayushman Bharat Yojana, etc.
All these schemes intended to take administration to the doorstep of the common man by
making the rural households, particularly the women, real beneficiaries of the Central
Government schemes.

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